Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of Delhi Sultanate which came to power after Tughlaq dynasty. They ruled from 1414-1450AD. The family claimed to be Sayyids or descendants of Mohammed started the Sayyid Dynasty. The founder of Sayyid Dynasty was Khizir Khan, the governor of Multan and Timur’s deputy in India. After the fall of Tughlaq dynasty there was no proper authority to take control on Delhi. At the same time this dynasty came to power with lot of chaos.
Khizir Khan :( 1414-1421)
He is the founder of this dynasty. There was lot of chaos during his period of rule. He ruled from 1414-1421. Khizir Khan was a soft natured person. There were not many wars during his period. He was very weak so never assumed the title King but worked as Viceroy of Timur-e-Lang. After the death of Khizir Khan in 1422 his son Mubarak Shah took over the reigns.
After ascending the throne, Mubarak assumed the title
Shah and issued the coins in his name. He followed his father’s footsteps and
took disciplinary actions against Jagirdhars and nobles to collect revenue.
This displeased the Jagirs and the governors. The nobles started to rebel
against the King. But Sultan was able to
snub the revelled nobles at Bathinda and Doab. Mubarak Shah was able to keep a
check on the foreign powers at distance. For 13 years he fought internally and
externally to keep Delhi Sultanate safe and intact. All his life he spent in
curbing one or the other revolt. At last
Mubarak Shah fell a prey to the conspirators and was killed on 20th
Feb 1434 AD in his city Mubharakabad where he had gone to see the construction work
Mohammed Shah (1434-1445)
After Mubarak got killed one of the grandson of Khizir Khan took over the control of this dynasty and called himself as Mohammed Shah. He ruled for 12 years. The nobles who were against Mubarak came back and supported Mohammed Shah. Since nobles were supporting Mohammed Shah had a great opportunity to reorganise the affairs of the state but he preferred enjoyment and pleasures. He was not an able ruler. He was very incapable. The Sultan of Malwa camped near Delhi to invade Delhi. The Wazir who enjoyed the power gave importance to Royal officers. After Kamal – ul – mult took the command he displaced wazir and returned to his capital with army. Later on taking help from Bahlul Lodi Mohammed Shah defeated Mohammed Khiliji. Mohammed Shah called Bahlul Lodi as his son and conferred him with the title Khan-I- Jahan. Bahlul Lodi later on occupied large parts of Punjab and attacked Delhi in 1443 without any success. Mohammed Shah died in 1445 and he nominated Ala-ud-din Shah as his successor before his death.
Ala-ud –din Alam Shah (1445-51)
Even Alam Shah was not a good ruler or administrator. The army of Bahlul Lodi and governor of Sahind gathered and replaced Alam Shah from Delhi in 1447. Alam shah went to Badoan and stayed for the rest of his life. With this the Sayyid dynasty came to an end.