Deccan plateau is one of the major
geographical segments of India with following specific features
Geographically, India can be divided into following parts:
1. Northern mountains
2. Gangetic plains
3. Thar desert
4. Western, Eastern Ghats and coastal planes
5. Islands and
6. Deccan plateau
Deccan plateau is the oldest plateau. It was formed because of the huge volcanic eruption which happened for many years. When the volcanic eruption stopped the lava cooled and formed the Deccan plateau.
The plateau lies to the southern part of India between Western and the Eastern Ghats. Deccan plateau is separated from Gangetic plain by Vindya and Satpura mountain ranges. On the South, the Indian Ocean is the boundary. It forms a triangular shape. Deccan Plateau ranges from 300m above mean sea level (MLS) on the northern side to almost 1000m above MSL on the Southern side. Most of the base of the plateau is made up of Basalt (which is commonly found at the base of seas and oceans). The plateau is rich in minerals like mica and iron ore in chota Nagpur region and diamonds, gold in Golconda region. Recently Uranium has been discovered in some parts of Andhra Pradesh (Tummalapalle in Kadapa District) as well as in river Bhima basin in Karnataka.
Climate in the plateau varies from place to place. It is usually semi arid to tropical in most part of the place. The plateau receives rainfall from June to October in the monsoon season. Summers are hot and the temperatures can go up to 40oc. The climate is much drier as compared to the coast. Agriculture is the main occupation of the majority of the people. Pulses, seeds, rice and cotton are some of the major crops grown in the Deccan plateau.
On the North West part of plateau lies the Deccan Traps. The Deccan traps are made up of large igneous rocks or lava flows. The dark soil found in this place is suitable for growing cotton. The traps are found in whole of Maharashtra, and some parts in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The area of the Deccan trap is famous for bed fossils found between the layers of lava. This area is also one of the largest volcanic provinces in the world.
Due to the height of
the mountains in Western Ghats, Deccan plateau receives less rainfall. Most of the rivers in Deccan plateau
originate in Western Ghats and drain towards east and into Bay of Bengal. The
major rivers of the plateau are Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. The three major
river basins drain the entire Deccan Plateau.
Godavari basin drain the northern part of Deccan Plateau, Krishna basin
drains the central part of the Deccan Plateau and Kaveri basin drains the
Southern part of plateau.
In the past many famous dynasties have prospered in Deccan Plateau at various times. Some of the dynasties are Vijaya Nagara, Chola, Cheran, Satvahana, Kadamba, Chalukya, Rastrakuta, Maratha etc
In post independent India, The states in Deccan Plateau (Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Kerala) have been leading the prosperity in terms social and economic front as can be seen from the Human Development Index, rate of literacy, growth of GDP etc
Deccan plateau has many touristic attractions and it is one of the most important tourists place in India. Some of the important cities located in Deccan Plateau are: Hyderabad, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Nagpur etc. Some of the famous religious places located in Deccan Plateau are Balaji temple in Tirumala (top of the hill next to Tirupati), Srisailam, Pandrapur, Shirdi, Tanjavur, Madurai, Puri, Shravana Belagola etc. Some of the key touristic places are Hyderabad, Mysore, Thiruvananthapuram, Hampi, Badami, Bijapur, Aurangabad and many more.