Simon commission: The government of India act of 1919 had made many political reforms in India. At that time it was decided by the British India that the reform would be reviewed for every 10years to look into the political changes the reform has made. In the year 1927 a commission headed by Sir John Simon was appointed to look into constitutional progress happening as per the government of India act of 1919. The seven member committee did not consists of any Indian. According to British India none of the Indian was included into the team because various Indian groups have major differences and could not come into any agreement for any constitutional changes.
This further agitated the Indians. Congress boycotted the
commission. The congress demanded the commission to draft a constitution that
would be in favour of Indians and would be acceptable to Indians. Even a group
of Muslims led by Jinnah boycotted the commission, but Mohammed Shafi favoured
the commission. This led to the split among Muslims. The Simon Commission which arrived in 1928
were greeted with black flags saying ‘Simon go away’. Various Hartals took
place all over India. There were firing and lathi charges at many places. On
October 28th 1928, the Simon Commission arrived at Lahore. They were
again greeted with black flags. The protest went violent, one such protest was
led by Lala Lajpat Rai, he was beaten by the police and later he died of
injuries on November 17th 1928. To further prove that congress wrong
and all India party organised a conference in 1928. This was headed by Motilal
Nehru. Accordingly it was said in the conference that India be given the status
of dominion status which means that India be a self governor colony under
British rule. If dominion status is not awarded within a year, then congress
threatened to start a nationwide agitation demanding poorna Swaraj. Gandhiji
threatened to start a nationwide civil disobedience movement. To fight against
the Simon Commission Hindus and Muslims again had showed unity and India
unitedly fought against British for poorna Swaraj.
Dyarchy system of ruling be abolished and in each provinces a government representative or a minister should be responsible for taking care of the provinces.
It recommended that until the tension between Hindus and Muslims subside, separate electorates be maintained.
Motilal Nehru had submitted the report called Nehru report which demanded for the dominion status. The British on noting that the educated Indians would oppose the recommendations of the commission suggested that Indian leaders opinion would be taken in all major decisions and dominion status would be given.
Governor should be given full powers to interfere in case of a breakdown of constitution
The Simon commission was the government of India act 1935,
which proposed to have a representative at each provincial level. In 1937 first
elections were held in provinces. Some of the important acts after the emergence of Gandhi were Rowlatt act, Khilafat act.
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