Khilafat Movement: The British after the First World War imposed humiliating terms on the ruler of turkey who was also the caliph of Islam. This angered the Indian Muslim. From 1919-1922 two important movements that happened were the khilafat movement and the non cooperation movement. The movement was started in the year 1919 under the leadership of Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali. This movement was a Pan Islamic movement launched against British government in India. In order to protect the Ottoman Empire from western attack and to protect the interests of Muslim, Ottoman Empire launched this Pan Islamic movement. Being a Caliph the emperor enjoyed supreme power both in religious and political way from Muslims. But as always a crook called Mustafa Kemal Atrakuk who was a pro western abolished the position of Caliph. This angered Muslims and led to Khilafat movement and other movements across the world. Maulana Mohammed Ali Johar spent four years in jail for supporting Caliph was against British. Fearing the action against Caliphat from the British an all India Khilafat committee was launched in Lucknow. The leaders of Indian National Congress and the Khilafat Committee entered in to an alliance in the year 1920. Tilak and Gandhi joined the movement. March 19th 1920 was called as Khilafat Day and various activities were organised. The Muslims rendered their support for the non cooperation movement. The Khilafat movement again bought Hindus and Muslims on the same diayas. The support of Muslims for the non cooperation movement helped Gandhi and other freedom fighters to fight against British for national cause.
However there were various reasons for the failure of the
movement. Difference started to creep between Hindus and Muslims as Ali
brothers thought that Gandhiji extreme action of non violence does not help in
getting the Swaraj. In the year 1922 mob became violent and burnt the police
station in chori chora place. As many as 25 people were killed. The Khilafat
movement was a collective resistance against the British but however with
Turkey gaining more importance the movement collapsed in 1922. Ottoman was over
thrown by the pro western secular republic and severed ties with Indian
Muslims. They abolished role of Caliph. All these and many other reasons led to
the failure of Khilafat movement.
Non cooperation movement 1920-1922
Another important movement in the history of India’s struggle for independence was the non cooperation movement. With the emergence of Gandhi as leader the nationalism had taken over people of India. Everyone Indian started participating in the struggle of freedom. Everyone had complete faith on Mahatma Gandhi who showed the right path for gaining independence. After the Rowlatt act, Jalianwala Bagh Massacre, Khilafat movement Gandhiji could not tolerate the atrocities of the British. On 1st August 1920, Gandhiji called for a non cooperation movement for all wrong done by the British in Punjab and Turkey. This day was the most saddest day as Tilak expired.
The main points in the non cooperation movements were
Gandhiji asked all the fellow Indians to boycott the British goods like clothing, food etc. All the Indians were asked to renounce their titles and the awards, to boycott all courts, legislature activities and educational institutions. All the British goods were burnt in public. People were asked to wear clothes that were made in India. Many leaders like Subhash Chandra Bose, Rajendra Prasad, C Rajgopalchari and Motilal Nehru gave up their careers and joined the movement. The congress also boycotted the elections. Thousands of young Indians left their schools and colleges and joined the movement. Khadi Charka became the symbol of the national movement. The congress which supported the movement promoted various cottage industries for the weaving of our own clothes. Many new education institutions that came up were The Kashi Vidyapeeth, The Bihar Vidyapeeth, and Jamia Millia at Aligarh. Women came in large number to support the act. Congress who supported the movement asked for non payment of taxes. Congress also boycotted the elections and thousands of voters did not vote in protest.
In response people in Andhra Pradesh refused to pay municipal taxes. The peasants in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Bengal organised no tax campaigns and also fought for the illegal eviction of land by the British. The movement spread even among the tribes people residing in forest. Tribes from Bengal and Andhra refused to pay taxes on grazing. These tribes organised various satyagraha movement demanding them to use the forest resources. Different kind of labourers worked together for the fulfilment of their demands like the labourers of tea plantations went on strike demanding for the increase in wages. The Muslim peasant community called as Moplahs revolted against the behaviour and action of zamindars. In Punjab the Sabhas made a non violent protest against the corrupt priests of Gurudwaras. The movement spread like a fire all over India. People blindly believed Ghandhiji’s action and thought Gandhiji would help India to get Swaraj.
But however British did not keep quiet; they banned congress from any political activities. Nearly 30,000 congress workers and various volunteers were arrested. The main reason for the failure of this movement was on Feb. 4th 1922 at chauri choura activists set a police station on fire killing 22 police men. This led to more violence. Gandhiji whose principle was nonviolence felt very disappointed by the act at Chauri Chaura appealed people to do in non violence way. When the violence spread to different parts Gandhiji called off the non cooperation movement and went on fast for 3 weeks. The British arrested Gandhiji and jailed him for six years. Many condemned the action of suspending the movement by Gandhi. Even though the non cooperation movement ended abruptly it did had some positive impacts