Minto Morley reforms also known as Indian council act was formed in 1909. The act was passed by the Parliament of United Kingdom to increase the number of Indians in the governance and the legislative council. The reforms were made by the then Secretary of state John Morley and Viceroy Lord Minto. Hence this act is popularly known as Minto Morley reforms act. Some important salient features of the act were:
However this act was an important act in terms of
constitutional development in the history of India. It gave India the electoral
procedure to vote.
After Minto Morley reforms many revolutionary activities turned around in India. Some Indians were convinced that the use of violence alone could drive British from India. They started meeting in groups and started manufacturing weapons to fight against British. Due to this many nationalist were imprisoned and were executed without doing any trial. The Andaman Nicobar Jail was especially built to keep these prisoners. Further some important developments happened were that the division of Bengal was annulled. The new provinces of Bihar, comprising present Bihar, Jharkhand and parts of Odisha.
The world war one
which started in the year 1914 had a huge impact on India. The moderates
thought that it was their duty to help and support British during the war. This
would in turn help India in gaining freedom from British. The war caused severe
scarcity in war supplies, but however the steel industries and other industries
made huge profit. But however after the war the Indians were thoroughly
depressed by the behaviour of the British. They did nothing to improve the
economy of the India. Indians were not given any importance or more power in
the governance. This further led to the Lucknow act of 1916.
Lucknow pact was signed in the year 1916. After the split of moderates and the extremists in Surat, Lucknow pact can be termed as an important act which brought both moderates and extremists together. The congress leaders and the Muslim league leader led by Mohd Ali Jinnah signed the Lucknow pact for self governance of India. When Muslim league started it had no clear directions other than wanting to support Muslims and support British, but however the Lucknow pact gave clear directions to the Muslim league. The main objectives of the pact were:
The Lucknow pact had a huge impact on Hindus and Muslim. It brought unity among the both. But however the separate electorate for Muslims was a blunder. In a way it agreed to consider Muslims as a separate nation. This pact also made it clear that India is a group of different communities and each community has its own interests. But whatever may be this pact brought Hindus and Muslims together again atleast for few years.
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