Eastern Ghats of India: Eastern Ghats are dis continuous mountain range along the eastern coast of India. The mountains of the Eastern Ghats are not as big as the Western Ghats Mountains. They run parallel to Bay of Bengal. Deccan plateau lies between Western and Eastern Ghats. Eastern Ghats is a broken stretch from Odissa to Tamil Nadu covering the states of Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Karnataka and Kerala. In Orissa it starts from Similipal in Mayurbhanj district and ends at Malkangiri. The northern most part of Eastern Ghats is present in Orissa. Here it is known by the name Simulia hills. The highest peak in Orissa is Deomali which is located in Korapt district of Southern Orissa.
The continuity of the Eastern Ghats is broken by major rivers like Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri. The range of hills is broken into many hills due to surface erosion.
The Eastern Ghats are older than the Western Ghats and the mountains are not as high as Western Ghats. The geology of Eastern Ghats is very complex to understand. It is believed to have assembled by the breaking up of ancient supercontinent of Rodina and the assemble of Gondwana. Some of the common rocks that are found in Eastern Ghats are limestone, granite gnesis, quartzite and bauxite.
Mahanadi River is an important river for the state of Orissa. During the monsoon season the river used to flood and was causing huge loss to life and property of the people in Orissa. But after the construction of the Hiracud dam the flood situation has improved. Mahanadi was called as sorrow of Orissa. Due to the technology and improvement in the canals, barrages and dams, the river is under control. The river deposits more silts than any other rivers in the Indian subcontinent. Some of the other important rivers that flow through Eastern Ghats include Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Krishna and Godavari. The rivers that originate in Eastern Ghats include Vellar, Nagavali, Gosthani, Pennai Yaru, Kundu, Champavathi and Vamsandra river.
During the monsoon season the Eastern Ghats receives heavy rainfall. The climate is generally cooler and wetter in the higher hill ranges than the surrounding plains. In some places summers are pretty hot. Even the Eastern Ghats have many hills ranges. The holy Tirumala hills are located along the Seshachalam Velikonda Range. The Palar River cuts through the ranges. Some of the other prominent hills ranges of the Eastern Ghats are Yeracud Hill station which is considered as King of Eastern Ghats is located in Shevaroy Hills. Another important hill range in eastern Ghats is the Biligirirangan hills which connects the eastern and the western Ghats. It is the second largest to have wild Asian Elephant population. Some other hill ranges are Male Mahadeshwara Hills, Arma Konda, Garjhat range, Kalrayan hills and Pachaimali.
The flora and fauna of the eastern Ghats have some endangered species. However due to human encroachment of these forests in eastern Ghats are decreasing the population of animals. There are varieties of mammals, reptiles, birds and amphibians present in the eastern Ghats. Some of the rare species include, Jerdon’s cursor, grey slender loris, golden gecko, Indian giant squirrel, striped Hyena, Great Indian bustard, Indian pitta, mugger crocodile, green keelback and the list never ends. The eastern Ghats have many medicinal plants.
There are many wild life sanctuaries
and National parks in the eastern Ghats. Some of them are Venkateshwara
National park, Coringa wild life sanctuary, Krishna wild life sanctuary,
Hadgarh wild life sanctuary, Satkosia tiger reserve and many more.
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